Robert T. Schooley, M.D.
Professor of Medicine
Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases
Academic Vice Chair, Department of Medicine
UCSD, 9500 Gilman Drive
Telephone: (858) 822-0216
Robert T. Schooley, MD, is the Division Head and Professor of Medicine in the Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Dr. Schooley received his medical degree from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in 1974 and completed his medical house staff training at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1976. He completed fellowships in infectious diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and at the Massachusetts General Hospital before joining the faculty of Harvard Medical School in 1981.
Dr. Schooley began his research career studying the immunopathogenesis of herpesvirus infections in immunocompromised patients (1) but shifted his focus to AIDS in 1981 when the first cases of this syndrome began to appear in Boston. His research group was among the first to delineate the humoral and cellular immune responses to HIV infection (2,3). Over the next 15 years he became increasingly involved in the discovery and development of antiretroviral chemotherapeutic agents including reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors and entry inhibitors (4,5). He was recruited to the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in 1990 to serve as Head of the Division of Infectious Diseases. While at Colorado he was elected to serve as Chair of the NIAID’s AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) which he headed from 1995 – 2002. During his tenure as Group Chair the ACTG expanded to include research sites in Latin America, the Caribbean, South Asia and Africa and is now the largest and most productive multinational clinical and translational research organization focusing on the pathogenesis and therapy of HIV and its complications.
He was recruited to the University of California, San Diego in 2005 where he now serves as Head of the Division of Infectious Diseases. His relocation to UCSD was stimulated by the breadth and depth of the science at UCSD, the opportunity to shift his research focus to global heath and to develop a multidisciplinary HCV research program. His current research interests include HIV and HCV pathogenesis and therapy and infections that cause morbidity and mortality in resource limited settings. Working with Dr. Emilia Noormahomed, he (together with Drs. Benson and Smith) provides leadership to the UEM-UCSD Medical Education Partnership Initiative. This Partnership forms the basis of an extensive collaboration between UCSD and Mozambique’s major universities. This partnership supports education and research in multiple medical specialties, bioinformatics and engineering.
Dr. Schooley's personal research interests include HCV, influenza and HIV pathogenesis and therapy and the diagnosis and management of infections that cause morbidity and mortality in resource limited settings.
- Schooley RT, Hirsch MS, Colvin R.B, Cosimi AB, Tolkoff-Rubin NE, McCluskey RT, Burton RC, Russell PS, Herrin JT, Delmonico FL, Giorgi JV, Henle W and Rubin RH. Association of herpes virus infections with T-lymphocyte subset alterations, glomerulopathy, and opportunistic infections following renal transplantation. N Engl J Med. 1983; 308:307-13.
- Walker BD, Chakrabarti S, Moss B, Paradis TJ, Flynn T, Durno AG, Blumberg RS, Kaplan JC, Hirsch MS and Schooley RT. HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in seropositive individuals. Nature. 1987; 328:345-8.
- Walker BD, Flexner C, Birch-Limberger K, Fisher L, Paradis TJ, Aldovini A, Young R, Moss B and Schooley RT. Long-term culture and fine specificity of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones reactive with HIV-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci, USA. 1989; 86:9514-8.
- Fischl MA, Richman DD, Grieco M, Gottlieb MS, Volberding P, Laskin D, Leedom JM, Schooley RT, Grooprnan J, Mildvan D, Jackson GG, Durack D, King D and the AZT Collaborative Working Group. The efficacy of azidothymidine (AZT) in the treatment of patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. N Engl J Med. 1987; 317:185-91.
- Schooley RT, Merigan TC, Gaut P, Hirsch MS, Holodniy M, Flynn T, Liu S, Byington RE, Henochowicz S, Gubish E. A Phase I/II escalating dose trial of recombinant soluble CD4 therapy in patients with AIDS or AIDS Related Complex. Ann Intern Med. 1990; 112:247-253.
- Wyles DL, Kaihara KA and Schooley RT. Synergy of an HCV NS4A Antagonist in Combination with HCV protease and polymerase inhibitors. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother, 2008; 52:1862-4.
- Schooley RT. Spino C. Kuritzkes D. Walker BD. Valentine FA. Hirsch MS. Cooney E. Friedland G. Kundu S. Merigan TC Jr. McElrath MJ. Collier A. Plaeger S. Mitsuyasu R. Kahn J. Haslett P. Uherova P. deGruttola V. Chiu S. Zhang B. Jones G. Bell D. Ketter N. Twadell T. Chernoff D. Rosandich M. Two double-blinded, randomized, comparative trials of 4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope vaccines in HIV-1-infected individuals across a spectrum of disease severity: AIDS Clinical Trials Groups 209 and 214. J Infect Dis. 2000; 182:1357-64.
- Wyles DW, Kaihara KA, Vaida F and Schooley RT. Synergy of small molecular inhibitors of HCV replication directed at multiple viral targets. J Virol. 2007; 81:3005-8.
- Grünberger C, Wyles DL, Kaihara KA, and Schooley RT. Three-Drug synergistic interactions of small molecular inhibitors of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. J Infect Dis 2008. 197: 42-5.
- Wyles DL, Kaihara KA and Schooley RT. Synergy of an HCV NS4A Antagonist in Combination with HCV protease and polymerase inhibitors. Antimicrobial Agents Chemother, 2008, 52:1862-4.
- Kumarasamy N, Madhavan V, Venkatesh KK, Saravanan S, Kantor R, Balakrishnan P, Devaleenol B, Poongulali S, Yepthomi T, Solomon S, Mayer K, Benson C and Schooley R. High frequency of clinically significant mutations following first-line generic HAART failure: Implications for second line options in resource-limited settings. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:306-9.
- Schooley RT, Spritzler J, Wang H, Lederman MM, Havlir D, Kuritzkes DR, Pollard RB, Battaglia C, Robertson M, Mehrotra D, Casimiro D, Cox K, Schock B and the ACTG 5197 Study Team ACTG 5197: A Placebo Controlled Trial of Immunization of HIV-1 Infected Persons with a Replication Deficient Ad5 Vaccine Expressing the HIV-1 Core Protein J Infect Dis, 2010;202:705-16.
- Holmes EC, Ghedin E, Halpin RA, Stockwell TB, Zhang, X-Q, Fleming R, Davey R, Benson CA, Mehta SR, Taplitz RA, Liu Y-T, Brouwer KC, Wentworth DE, Lin X, INSIGHT FLU002 Study Group and Schooley RT. Extensive Geographical Mixing of Human H1N1/09 Influenza A Virus in a Single University Community. J Virol, 2011; 14; 6923-9.
- Lochhead MJ, Todorof K, Delaney M, Ives JT, Greef C, Moll K, Rowley K, Vogel K, Myatt C, Zhang XQ, Logan C, Benson C, Reed S, Schooley RT. Rapid multiplexed immunoassay for simultaneous serodiagnosis of HIV-1 and coinfections. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3584-90.
- Cohen M, Zhang XQ, Senaati HP, Chen HW, Varki NM, Schooley RT, Gagneux P. Influenza A penetrates host mucus by cleaving sialic acids with neuraminidase. Virol J. 2013;10:321. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-10-321. PMID:24261589
- Lin JC, Habersetzer F, Rodriguez-Torres M, Afdhal N, Lawitz EJ, Paulson MS, Zhu Y, Subramanian GM, McHutchison JG, Sulkowski M, Wyles DL, Schooley RT. IP-10 Kinetics in Treatment-Naïve Versus -Experienced Patients Receiving Interferon-Free Hepatitis C Virus Therapy: Implications for the Innate Immune Response. J Infect Dis. 2014. Jun 6. pii: jiu325. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 24907384
- Orlov M, Vaida F, Williamson K, Deng Q, Smith DM, Duffy PE, Schooley RT. Antigen-Presenting Phagocytic Cells Ingest Malaria Parasites and Increase HIV Replication in a TNF-α Dependent Manner. J Infect Dis. 2014: 210:1562-72 PMID: 24903666